Tara Hartford currently provided Krum ISD’s use of protection applications before a statewide assembly of educators.

Hartford, a technological know-how teacher at Krum High School, defined on Monday afternoon the district’s use of two phone programs on the request of students to cope with their 3 biggest concerns: safety, pills and mental illness.

Her presentation become held all through the second one day of the Texas Association of School Administrators’ Midwinter Conference.

Both apps, Smart Button and Anonymous Alerts, have been implemented at the start of the 2018-19 college year for Krum’s high school and middle faculty.

Smart Button serves as a manner to speedy alert a campus and primary responders to a lockdown. Administrators, campus police and the superintendent are capable of send out a single message blast to those with the app, consisting of instructors, parents and local emergency offerings, stated district spokeswoman Taylor Poston.

“Smart Button does not suggest that they want to be on their cellphone; it sends a push notification to their display, with sound to alert group of workers,” Poston said.

Anonymous Alerts permits college students, instructors, dad and mom and community participants to send nameless, encrypted communications to district administrators.

Poston said: “The alerts are funneled thru the app based totally on the sort of file made,” meaning they could head toward principals, counselors and district or metropolis police, relying on the character of the alert.

Pictures and films may be connected to the encrypted messages.

Officials wish the app will help educators address capacity or cutting-edge mental fitness problems, threats of violence and extra without sacrificing an informant’s privacy.

Since its implementation, the district has received sixty-four indicators thru the app, with troubles inclusive of suicidal hazard, attack, depression, dating violence, vaping, off-campus sexual assault and extra.

The app may have saved lives at Estrella Foothills High School in Goodyear, Arizona, in October: A student changed into arrested when informants used the app to alert directors that he had guns.

His backpack became searched, and he becomes determined to have a loaded handgun and three knives, in keeping with media reviews.

As with any medium of verbal exchange, the app gives the capability for rumors to spiral out of manage, as became the case with a Magnolia teenager arrested in Septemberafter allegedly making a threat while he become suspended for a get dressed-code violation.

1. SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS
Education for children with special needs remains a challenging issue. The term
“special need” refers to a person with mental, emotional or physical issues who
generally requires a special setting for education (American Psychiatric Association,
2013). Inclusive education seems to be an appropriate system where children improve
better academic skills and develop adaptive behaviours (Cole et al., 2004). However,
no empirical studies significantly proved such results (Dessemontet et al., 2012).
The children who do not receive inclusive education will integrate special
schools. The level and definition of the special needs are classified by a diagnosis of
cognitive and motor capacities. Therefore, these special educational institutions must
usually deal with a large variety of disabilities, which might generate real challenges
since most of these children require specific and adapted structures (Keogel et al.,
2011). In order to illustrate the diversity of disabilities that these schools are exposed
to, some of these disabilities are described below. This list is not exhaustive but
limited to the diagnosis the authors encountered during this thesis.
1.1. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD)
It was believed that vaccines applied against the measles, mumps or rubella
could cause brain damage that would lead to autism (Flaherty, 2011). However,
scientific studies showed that vaccines were not the cause (Taylor et al., 2014).
INTRODUCTION
12
Actually, researchers point out genetic and environmental factors as the source of
autism (Chaste & Leboyer, 2012). ASD affects at least 1.16% of the children in the UK
(Baird et al., 2006) and 1.47% in the US (Baio, 2014).
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed according to pervasive
difficulties in social communication and interaction, and repetitive and stereotyped
behaviours (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Autism is referred as spectrum
since individuals’ experience within each of these impairments may differ
significantly. People who were formerly diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome are
nowadays integrated in the autism spectrum and referred as High-Functioning
Autism (HFA) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). These do not usually have
cognitive impairment and possess an average or above Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
(Hill and Frith, 2003). Children with ASD usually require special structures at school
with familiar routines, engaging and customisable learning activities (Millen et al.,
2010).
Up to date there is no cure and no single standard treatment. The treatments
that are applied are lifelong processes and mainly include educational therapies
(speech/language, occupational, etc.), medication and family support (Myers &
Johnson, 2007).
1.2. CEREBRAL PALSY (CP)
CP is a group of disorders that affect motor functions. It is the consequence of
damage that occurred to the developing brain and it may appear during pregnancy
or infancy (Gration, 2014). Overall prevalence of live births with CP is about 0.21%
(Oskoui et al., 2013).
Symptoms may vary between people according to the level of damage caused.
Consequently, the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was set in
order to classify the degree of motor dysfunction (Rethlefsen et al., 2010).
INTRODUCTION
13
Dysfunctions are usually permanent and may decline as people grow into adulthood
(Hanna et al., 2009).
Up to date there is no cure and no single standard treatment. The treatments
that are applied are lifelong processes and include medication, therapies (physical,
speech/language, occupational, etc.), surgery (orthopaedic or dorsal rhizotomy that
consists in cutting nerves) and assistive technology (Novak et al., 2013).
1.3. DOWN SYNDROME (DS)
DS is a chromosomal anomaly caused by the presence of an additional 21st
chromosome (Patterson, 2009). In 2010, the overall prevalence of live births with DS is
0.1% (Weijerman, 2010) and is nowadays one of the leading causes of intellectual
disabilities (Duchon & Herault, 2016).
People with DS show low sensorimotor performance (Hodges et al., 1995),
motor (Anson & Mawston, 2000) and perceptual (Elliott & Bunn, 2004) dysfunctions,
limitations in intellectual functioning as well as in adaptive behaviour (Hogan et al.,
2000). Specific motor dysfunctions may affect the basis of verbal information when a
sequence of movement is required (Heath et al., 2000). Furthermore, these
sensorimotor difficulties may also have an impact on participation at school,
independence in daily living, and social acceptance by peers (Pivik et al., 2002).
Up to date there is no cure and no single standard treatment. Treatments
applied are lifelong processes that include medication, early intervention and
educational therapies (physical, speech/language, occupational, etc.), and assistive
technology (Guralnick, 2011).
1.4. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (ID)
ID is an impairment of cognitive and adaptive functions. It is defined by an
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) below 70 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The
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causes may be various such as environmental (Shapiro & Batshaw, 2011) or genetic
(Rauch et al., 2012). The prevalence is estimated at 1.03% (Maulik et al., 2011).
ID impacts conceptual (language, reasoning, memory, etc.), social (empathy,
relationship, interpersonal communication, etc.) and self-management skills (personal
care, organization, work tasks, etc.) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In
addition, ID is usually coupled with other disabilities such as the ones previously
cited (ASD, CP, DS).
Up to date there is no cure and no single standard treatment. Treatments
applied are lifelong processes that include medication, behaviour therapies and
family support (Brown et al., 2013; Mash & Wolfe, 2013)

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